The table below describes the core assessments made available to different cohorts.
Descriptions of questionnaires and References:
1 Environmental Exposures Questionnaire (EEQ)
Includes living circumstances adapted from The National Family Health Survey (NFHS)-4, a large-scale survey conducted in a representative sample of households throughout India, which includes type of housing, kitchen area, source of drinking water, sanitation condition, source of light, livestock, type of cooking fuel, possessions, additional information on pets etc. The Environmental Exposures Questionnaire was taken from the ICMR Pesticides & Neurodegenerative Diseases Project, to assess exposure to neurotoxins, air pollution, noise, etc., among other sources. Please use the following citation if utilizing this questionnaire:
Chakrabarti A. Biomarkers and gene polymorphisms to predict association of chronic environmental organophosphorus pesticide exposure with neurodegenerative diseases: A case control study in rural West Bengal. In “Annual Report, National Institute of Occupational Health, ICMR”. 2014-15: 75-79; Ahmedabad, India.
2 Migration questions: taken from the National Sample Survey (NSS) questions to assess patterns of migration.
3 Life Events Questionnaire (LEQ)
The Life-Events Questionnaire (LEQ) is an adaptation of the Stressful Life-Event Questionnaire from Newcomb, Huber, & Bentler (1981), that was originally validated on a US sample, and was adapted to the demands of our UK/German and French sample in terms of wording. The scale uses 39 items to measure the occurrence (“ever”, “in the past year”) and the perceived desirability of events covering the following domains: Family/Parents, Accident/lllness, Sexuality, Autonomy, Deviance, Relocation, and Distress. Additionally, the question “How old were you when this happened” has been introduced. With this additional question we aim to obtain more detailed information of significant/ stressful life events during early development vs later developmental stages.
Note: Several individual items were reworded as they were deemed ambiguous/ vague in the original version [and largely discrepant responses indicate that adolescents may have interpreted the question in different ways]. Reworded items were only included if 2+ raters agreed upon the increased clarity of the new wording. One original item was broken into two questions, thus increasing the total number of items to 40.
4 Bully Questionnaire
The bullying questions have been adapted from a questionnaire used in a large international study entitled Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC). These questions were initially utilised in the revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire (Olweus, 1996), and the Youth Risky Behaviour Survey (Brener, Collins, Kann et al. 1995).
5 School experience (BNU):
The school climate questionnaire is a student-reported assessment of the psycho-social environment of the school. Four dimensions are included, namely school safety and order, school support and acceptance, school equality and fairness, and encouraging student autonomy and cooperation. The framework and a few items were revised from the WHO document “Creating an environment for emotional and social well-being”. School Climate Questionnaire (57items) has satisfied psychometric properties and performed well in accounting for students’ cognitive development, academic achievement and motivation (Tao, et al., 2015; Zhou, et al., 2016). A short version (21 items) was developed and applied to 2014 national basic educational quality assessment.
For alcohol and cigarettes, sections of the “European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs” (ESPAD; see e.g., Hibell & Andersson, 1997) are used to obtain measures of age of onset and quantity and frequency of alcohol, and tobacco use in one’s lifetime, past 12 months, past 30 days, and past week.
7 Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)
The self-report and parental report versions of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) will be used to assess 5 dimensions of youth pro-social and antisocial behaviour: emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity/ inattention, peer relationship problems, and prosocial behaviour (Goodman, 1997). The SDQ is a reliable and valid measure of youth emotional and behaviour symptoms, on which extreme scores are predictive of increased probability of clinician-rated psychiatric disorders and retest stability over 4-6 months (Goodman 2001). German and French versions of the SDQ exist and preliminary research suggests that these translated versions have similar internal structure to the English version (Woerner et al. 2002). Cross-national normative data are available for various countries including Germany and Great Britain, no norms are available for France yet (see http://www.sdqinfo.com/b8.html for reference). Please use this reference: Goodman R (1997) The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: A Research Note. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, 581-586.
The NEO-PI-R is a valid method of assessing broad dimensions of personality (De Fruyt, et al. 2000) based on the Five-Factor Model of personality (Costa and McCrea, 1997).
9 Brief Symptom Inventory is an instrument that evaluates psychological distress and psychiatric disorders in people. BSI collects data reported by patients for the evaluation. The BSI uses a self-report symptom measure of 53 items that describe a variety of items rated on a 5-point scale (0-4), ranging from not at all to extremely in levels of distress. There are nine dimensions of symptoms that are obtained from the scores (Somatisation (SOM), Obsessive-compulsive (OC), Interpersonal Sensitivity (INT), Depression (DEP), Anxiety (ANX), Phobic Anxiety (PHOB), Hostility (HOS), Paranoid Ideation (PAR), and Psychoticism (PSY)) (Boulet & Boss, 1991).
Derogatis, L. (1975). Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Baltimore, MD: Clinical Psychometric Research .
5-item World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5) is among the most widely used questionnaires assessing subjective psychological well-being. WHO-5 is a short questionnaire consisting of 5 simple and non-invasive questions, which tap into the subjective well-being of the respondents.
MINI was designed as a brief structured interview for the major Axis I psychiatric disorders in DSM-IV and ICD-10. Validation and reliability studies have been done comparing the M.I.N.I. to the SCID-P and the CIDI. The results of these studies show that the M.I.N.I. has acceptably high validation and reliability scores, but can be administered in a reasonable period of time (mean 18.7 – 11.6 min., median 15 min.). It can be used by clinicians, after a brief training session. Lay interviewers require more extensive training.